Bringing more causality to analytics

Experiments are the tip of the causal iceberg

Rigorous thinking about causality is widely applied in one special setting: experiments, where we randomly assign product or algorithmic changes, represent a special case where the most straightforward analysis is the causal analysis. There can be challenges in interpreting experiment results even with large samples and good experimental designs, but gradually most people in modern product, engineering, and data organizations are taking their first steps into the causal inference world.

Types of causal questions

We start by broadening the set of causal questions we ask. Many teaching examples start with simple questions like “does smoking cause cancer?” which is obviously quite useful to know but presumes we have already chosen a cause-effect pair to evaluate and have already measured them. There is a larger set of useful causal questions than “does X cause Y?” and they come up all the time!

Potential cause-effect questions where cause and effect maybe unknown, unconsidered, or unmeasured.
  1. Testing: Experiments occupy the bottom left quadrant: we know the cause (our product change) and the effects we want to look at (our metrics). These questions are often about estimating the strength of the relationship between the cause and effect so we can evaluate whether something is a success.
  2. Explanation: Often called “root-cause analysis,” a frequent analytics activity is to notice an effect in the data (e.g. a drop in an important metric) and then conduct a search for the cause.
  3. Characterization: In some cases we know about the cause because some change was introduced (either by us or externally), and we would like to understand what the consequences are. It can be valuable to determine if anything unexpected has happened to uncover unforeseen costs or benefits.
  4. Discovery: The most open-ended causal questions pertain to whether cause-effect relationships exist that we have not considered, but that matter to our business. There may be things we are doing that we haven’t studied which have hidden consequences that are good or bad for our business in the long-term.

Exploring a broader cause-effect space

From the diagram above we can see that one way to broaden our application of causal modeling involves the capability to explore relationships between these (currently) “unknown” variables. Known causes and effects are served by existing metrics and experimentation platforms, where the hypothesis space (potential cause-effect relationships) can be articulated in advance: causes are experiments we’ve run and effects are our user-level metrics. But clearly unknown cause-effect relationships are looming in our data — what makes them “unknown” to us?


Say you work on an e-commerce app and you are interested in identifying opportunities to improve how many browsers turn into buyers. You wonder whether users are finding compelling items, so you search for a new pattern that captures whether a user’s sequence data includes landing on a product page, scrolling down, and spending at least 30 seconds on the page. Querying for this pattern creates a new “effect” you can study, and now we can start to think about potential causes. You could also quickly redefine this pattern, perhaps removing the scrolling requirement or varying the window (maybe 30 seconds is too short or long).

Event sequence data partitioned into effect (result of a pattern match) and potential causes.

The problem of confounding

If you’re reading this and you’re anything like me, alarm bells are going off: what makes any of this “causal”? The correlation you noticed in the example could easily have been driven by an unobserved confounder, a case of omitted variable bias. There are plausible alternative explanations, for instance very interested buyers may do more of both things: using search and spend time reading about products. We have a causal DAG with an unobserved confounder (dashed box):

Causal DAG for the example. Interested Buyer confounds the correlation, but it may be measurable.
Different analytical estimands with more alternative explanations ruled out.
Each point here is a decile by experiment estimate. Estimates from Gordon et al. (2022).
Where do ideas to test come from? One important source is exploratory causal analyses.


For much of my career, I have been wondering how ideas from causal inference can be more useful to practitioners working on real-world analytics problems. I am thrilled to have joined Motif Analytics to work on this full-time, and we’re already starting to make promising progress on this. I think the answer lies in a combination of better data, more powerful tools designed to let human domain knowledge shine, and a thoughtful relationship with existing analytics tools such as A/B tests.

Sequence overlaid with causal DAG.



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